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Demography, urbanization and development : rural push, urban pull and... urban push (英语)

Developing countries have urbanized rapidly since 1950. To explain urbanization, standard models emphasize rural-urban migration, focusing on rural push factors (agricultural modernization and rural poverty) and urban pull factors (industrialization and urban-biased policies). Using new historical data on urban birth and death rates for seven countries from Industrial Europe (1800–1910) and thirty-five developing countries (1960–2010), this paper argues that a non-negligible part of developing countries’ rapid urban growth and urbanization may also be linked to demographic factors, such as rapid internal urban population growth, or an urban push. High urban natural increase in today’s developing countries follows from lower urban mortality, relative to Industrial Europe, where higher urban deaths offset urban births. This compounds the effects of migration and displays strong associations with urban congestion, providing additional insight into the phenomenon of urbanization without growth.


  • 作者

    Jedwab,Remi Camille, Christiaensen,Luc, Gindelsky,Marina

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  • 地区

    世界区域, 欧洲与中亚区,

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  • 文件名称

    Demography, urbanization and development : rural push, urban pull and... urban push ?

  • 关键词

    Demographic and Health Survey;urbanization;centre for research on the epidemiology;urban growth;urban growth rate;crude death rate;labor force survey;access to sanitation facility;average number of child;Canadian Journal of Economics;total fertility rate;improved water source;rate of death;urban population;family planning policy;improved sanitation facilities;crude birth rate;share of woman;effects of migration;family planning program;urbanization and growth;place of residence;list of countries;point of departure;acquisition of land;cities and development;rates of urbanization;human capital accumulation;source of energy;high birth rate;decline in mortality;Rate of migration;implications for policy;poor urban family;rural population growth;high fertility rate;share of resource;public social service;urban population growth;education and health;amount of water;births per woman;urban urban migration;per capita income;rapid urban growth;factor of production;dependency ratio;urban congestion;urban resident;migration rate;Rural Growth;long-term effect;reproductive age;demographic data;fertility survey;sample mean;urban child;standard deviation;Rural Sector;population share;rural resident;pull factor;urban wage;ceteris paribus;solid fuel;agglomeration effect;historical data;urbanization process;Demographic Transition;rural worker;rural-urban migration;