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Urban Air Quality Management Strategy in Asia (URBAIR) : Kathmandu valley report (英语)

Larger and more diverse cities are a sign of Asia's increasingly dynamic economies. Yet this growth has come at a cost. Swelling urban populations and increased concentration of industry and automotive traffic in and around cities have resulted in severe air pollution. Emissions from automobiles and factories; and domestic heating, cooking, and refuse burning are threatening the well being of city dwellers, imposing not just a direct cost by impacting human health but also threatening long term productivity. Governments, businesses, and communities face the daunting yet urgent task of improving their environment and preventing further air quality deterioration. Urban Air Quality Management Strategy in Asia (URBAIR) aims to assist in the design and implementation of policies, monitoring and management tools to restore air quality in major Asian metropolitan areas. At several workshops and working group meetings, government, industry, local researchers, non-government organizations, international and local experts reviewed air quality data and designed actions plans. These plans take into account economic costs and benefits of air pollution abatement measures. This report focuses on the development of an air quality management system for Kathmandu valley and the resulting action plan.


  • 作者

    Gronskei, Knut Erik Gram, Frederick Hagen, Leif Otto Larssen, Steinar

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  • 国家


  • 地区

    东亚与太平洋区, 南亚,

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  • 文件名称

    Urban Air Quality Management Strategy in Asia (URBAIR) : Kathmandu valley report

  • 关键词

    Traffic;population exposure;Air Quality Management;consumption;vehicle emission control program;dispersion model;emission factor;fuel oil;brick industry;brick kiln;air pollution problem;spatial distribution of population;air quality monitoring program;air quality management strategy;air quality data;air pollution concentrations;air pollution abatement;coal consumption;total emissions;relative humidity;domestic fuel;average daily traffic;air quality measurement;emergency room visits;restricted activity day;academy of science;emission inventory;emission standard;cement industry;vehicle exhaust;liquid fuel;pollution source;source of pollution;polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon;implementation of policies;growth in population;number of vehicles;fact finding mission;consumption of coal;life improvement;laws and regulation;rapid economic expansion;ambient air quality;controlling air pollution;air quality improvement;heavy fuel oil;volatile organic compound;pollution from industry;law and regulation;inventory of population;concentration of pollutant;reduction in emission;air pollution regulation;air pollution measurement;air pollution source;comparison of cost;liquefied petroleum gas;road vehicle fleet;consumption of gasoline;point source;metropolitan area;clean vehicle;cost-benefit analysis;domestic emission;heavy traffic;water vapor;abatement measure;dry season;monsoon season;particulate pollution;emission datum;residential area;non-governmental organization;ground level;air pollutant;cement plant;fuelwood consumption;high pressure;inversion layer;population data;public involvement;hot spot;respiratory symptom;road traffic;suspended particle;sea level;diesel oil;average rainfall;wind speed;industrial area;brick production;emission distribution;sulfate particle;awareness raising;rush hour;cost-effectiveness analysis;mountain range;concentration distribution;grid system;temperate climate;river plain;black smoke;central regions;monitoring stations;glacial climates;integrated system;average temperature;lead pollution;data gaps;cost analysis;collaborative effort;carbon monoxide;particulate concentration;sulfur dioxide;hydrogen sulfide;octane number;hospital admission;construction activities;wind direction;temperature rise;rice husk;fuel type;commercial areas;annual emission;ash content;commercial activity;distillate oil;residual oil;fuel fuel;traffic area;high concentration;high emissions;agricultural refuse;coal consumer;industrial establishments;industrial polluters;annual rainfall;small industry;agricultural waste;pollution exposure;registered vehicle;take time;air temperature;high altitude;dry months;agricultural activity;routine maintenance;exhaust emission;city administration;environmental crisis;safer technology;passenger vehicle;energy source;adverse health;economic instrument;Health cost;industrial zone;cultural property;educational center;local law;health problem;built environment;international community;long-term monitoring;city site;data retrieval;international expert;chronic bronchitis;leaded gasoline;policy plan;city study;diesel vehicle;gasoline car;private entity;fuel price;nitrogen oxide;environmental consequence;environmental problem;urban population;industrial expansion;vehicle population;dynamic economy;investment proposal;domestic heating;smoke opacity;metropolitan region;environmental damage;gross polluter;domestic cooking;existing law;industrial units;proactive policy;environmental risk;early adoption;vehicle pollution;spatial resolution;concentration data;brick manufacturing;management tool;strategy process;atmospheric visibility;automotive fuel;local expert;local researcher;excess mortality;city dweller;traffic statistic;wind rose;fog dispersal;population distribution;emission measurement;road link;dispersion calculation;coherent strategy;fuel use;traffic pollution;meteorological condition;cleaner technology;energy utilization;traffic data;remote sensing;scientific services;health damage;health effect