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Structuring and Supporting School- and Cluster-Based Continuous Professional Development (Vol. 2) : Technical Guidance Summary (英语)

School- and cluster-based approaches to professional development (PD) are in-service continuous teacher professional programs. These programs are characterized by groups of teachers working together to improve their practice within a single school, across clusters of several schools, or in combinations of the two. Common participants in school- and cluster-based PD include teachers, principals, and other pedagogical leaders. School- and cluster-based training tends to be highly participatory. It frequently is carried out and facilitated by teachers themselves or by an externally appointed facilitator. Training sessions also tend to be supported with centrally developed (at a subnational or national level) materials that provide guidance for the training sessions. School- and cluster-based approaches to PD offer an effective, participatory, and responsive alternative to the traditional cascade model. The traditional cascade model of PD typically trains selected teachers from a predefined unit of geography at a central location. After the training, these teachers are redeployed into their settings to train other teachers. This spillover often repeats over many levels until all teachers have received some level of training. Cascade training often can reach many teachers within a short time and at low cost. However, over the years, research and implementation experience has exposed critical weaknesses of this approach.