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Cost-Efficiency Considerations for the Completion of Road Networks in Openstreet Map : A Priority-Based Mapping Approach Applied in Pakistan (英语)

Limited access to services and opportunities is systematically linked to poorer development outcomes. In Pakistan, 22.8 million children between the ages of 5 and 16, about forty-four percent do not attend primary or secondary education, numbers which rise sharply with age. Distance to school and a lack of provision are two of the main reasons for not attending school in rural areas of Pakistan. Similarly, a shortage of and long distances to health facilities hinder the access of primarily rural and poor households to these critical services. This is compounded by a dearth of transportation options with poorly maintained roads, affected by unfavourable weather and unsafe driving conditions. Detailed spatial knowledge of disparities in accessibility to these services is crucial to designing targeted and cost-effective policies, investments, and projects to address them. The World Bank’s Pakistan poverty and equity team, together with the Pakistan transport team, therefore refined and applied a high-resolution method to measure and visualize accessibility disparities to services at the level of tehsils (third-level administrative units) in Pakistan. This report covers the accessibility model that was applied to access to schools, healthcare facilities, and markets in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province.