This paper uses long panel survey data spanning over 20 years to examine the dynamics of microcredit programs in Bangladesh. With the phenomenal growth of microfinance institutions representing 30 million members with over $2 billion of annual disbursement over the past two decades, it is important to understand the dynamics of microcredit expansion and its induced impact on household welfare. ... 更多显示 A dynamic panel model is used to address a number of issues, such as whether credit effects are declining over time, whether market saturation and village diseconomies are taking place, and whether multiple program membership, which is rising as a consequence of microcredit expansion, is harming or benefiting the borrowers. The paper's results confirm that microcredit programs have continued to benefit the poor by raising household welfare. The beneficial effects have also remained higher for female than male borrowers. There are diseconomies of scale caused by higher levels of village-level borrowing, especially for male members. Multiple program membership is also growing with competition from microfinance institutions, but this has rather helped raise assets and net worth more than it has contributed to indebtedness. 更少显示
政策研究报告 WPS6821 2014年3月1日
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.
The Government of Bangladesh, with help from the World Bank and other donors, has provided aid to a local agency called Infrastructure Development Company Limited and its partner organizations to devise a credit scheme for marketing solar home system units and making these an affordable alternative to grid electricity for poor people in remote areas. ... 更多显示 This paper uses household survey data to examine the financing scheme behind the dissemination of these solar home systems, in particular the role of the subsidy; the factors that determine the adoption of the systems in rural Bangladesh; and the welfare impacts of such adoption. The paper finds that while the subsidy has been declining over time, the demand for solar home systems has seen phenomenal growth, mostly because of technological developments that have made the systems increasingly more affordable. Households with better physical and educational endowments are more likely to adopt solar home systems than poor households. The price of the system matters in household decision making -- a 10 percent decline in the price of the system increases the overall demand for a solar panel by 2 percent. As for the benefits, adoption of a solar home system improves childrens evening study time, lowers kerosene consumption, and provides health benefits for household members, in particular for women. It is also found to increase women's decision-making ability in certain household affairs. Finally, it is found to increase household consumption expenditure, although at a small scale. 更少显示
政策研究报告 WPS6724 2013年12月1日
Samad, Hussain A.; Khandk, Shahidur R.; Asaduzzaman, M.; Yunus, Mohammad
Household air pollution is the second leading cause of disease in Madagascar, where more than 99 percent of households rely on solid biomass, such as charcoal, wood, and crop waste, as the main cooking fuel. ... 更多显示 Only a limited number of studies have looked at the emissions and health consequences of cook stoves in Africa. This paper summarizes an initiative to monitor household air pollution in two towns in Madagascar, with a stratified sample of 154 and 184 households. Concentrations of fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide in each kitchen were monitored three times using UCB Particle Monitors and GasBadge Pro Single Gas Monitors. The average concentrations of both pollutants significantly exceeded World Health Organization guidelines for indoor exposure. A fixed-effect panel regression analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of various factors, including fuel (charcoal, wood, and ethanol), stove (traditional and improved ethanol), kitchen size, ventilation, building materials, and ambient environment. Judging by its effect on fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide, ethanol is significantly cleaner than biomass fuels and, for both pollutants, a larger kitchen significantly improves the quality of household air. Compared with traditional charcoal stoves, improved charcoal stoves were found to have no significant impact on air quality, but the improved wood stove with a chimney was effective in reducing concentrations of carbon monoxide in the kitchen, as was ventilation. 更少显示
政策研究报告 WPS6627 2013年9月1日
Dasgupta, Susmita; Martin, Paul; Samad, Hussain A.
This brief summarizes the welfare impacts of rural electrification: evidence from Vietnam for the period 2000-2004. Access to electricity is a key to any development initiative and there is a growing body of literature on the impact of rural electrification on development. ... 更多显示 However, most studies have so far relied on cross-sectional surveys comparing households with and without electricity, which have well known causal attribution problems. This paper is one of the first studies to examine the welfare impacts of households' rural electrification based on panel surveys conducted in 2002 and 2005 for some 1,100 households in rural Vietnam. The findings indicate that grid electrification has been both extensive (connecting all surveyed communes by 2005) and intensive (connecting almost 80 percent of the surveyed households by 2005). Vietnam is fairly unique in that once electricity is locally available, both rich and poor households are equally likely to get the connection. The econometric estimations suggest that grid electrification has significant positive impacts on households' cash income, expenditure and educational outcomes. The benefits, however, reach a saturation point after prolonged exposure to electricity. Finally, this study recommends investigating long-term benefits of rural electrification - not just for households, but for rural economy as a whole. 更少显示
简介 81520 2013年8月14日
Khandker, Shahidur; Barnes, Douglas; Samad, Hussain; Minh, Nguyen Huu
Microcredit programs in Bangladesh have experienced spectacular growth in recent years, with a growing number of borrowers availing credit from multiple microcredit agencies. ... 更多显示 There is a growing concern that if there are not sufficient returns to borrowing from microfinance institutions (MFIS), some borrowers might be taking loans that they will not be able to repay. A household may be considered over-indebted, for example, if its debt liability exceeds 40 percent of its income or assets. Using a long panel of household survey data from Bangladesh, the paper finds that some 26 percent of microcredit borrowers are over-indebted on this measure versus 22 percent of non-microcredit borrowers. Econometric analysis suggests that both MFI competition and multiple borrowing raise indebtedness. However, repeated borrowing, while it affects short-term liability adversely, does affect the long-term debt-asset ratio favorably. That is, repeated borrowing helps increase assets more than debt over time. Microcredit borrowers in Bangladesh are thus not necessarily over-indebted. But when borrowing is seen as protection against shocks such as floods even at the cost of being indebted, MFIs may offer micro-insurance schemes to safeguard borrowers against economic shocks. 更少显示
政策研究报告 WPS6574 2013年8月1日
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Faruqee, Rashid; Samad, Hussain A.
This paper addresses whether microcredit participants in Bangladesh are trapped in poverty and debt, as many critics have argued in recent years. ... 更多显示 Analysis of data from a long panel survey over a 20-year period confirms this is not the case, although numerous participants have been with microcredit programs for many years. The results of the analysis suggest that participants derive a variety of benefits from microcredit: It helps them to earn income and consume more, accumulate assets, invest in children's schooling, and be lifted out of poverty. This is not to say that non-participants have failed to progress over the same period. Both participants and non-participants have gained as the economy has grown; however, the rates of poverty reduction have been higher for participants. Testing the net effect of microcredit programs requires applying an econometric method that controls for why some households participated and others did not, conditional on their initial characteristics. In addition, the method must control for time-varying, unobserved heterogeneity that affects everyone over time, albeit in possibly different ways. The paper's econometric estimates show significant welfare gains resulting from microcredit participation, especially for women. They also show that the accrued benefits of borrowing outweigh accumulated debt. As a result, households' net worth has increased, and both poverty and the debt-asset ratio have declined. 更少显示
政策研究报告 WPS6404 2013年4月1日
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.
In less-developed economies such as Bangladesh, the farm sector is the major source of employment and income, while the rural nonfarm sector provides as an additional source of income. ... 更多显示 But the rural nonfarm sector increasingly plays an important role in fostering the development of the rural economy. A significant share of this sector is made up of microenterprise activities, which requires investment and access to adequate funds. This paper investigates the role access to finance plays in promoting the efficiency and growth of microenterprise activities. The findings suggest that households engaged in microenterprise activities, in addition to farm and other nonfarm activities, are much better off (in terms of income, expenditure and poverty) than those not engaged in such activities. Fewer than 10 percent of the enterprises have access to institutional finance (formal banks or microcredit), although the rate of return on microenterprise investments is more than sufficient (36 percent per year) to repay institutional loans. The research suggests that credit constraints may reduce the enterprises' profit margin by as much as 13.6 percent per year. As the returns to microenterprise investment are found to be high, microfinance institutions can play a larger role in supporting microenterprise growth in Bangladesh. 更少显示
政策研究报告 WPS6333 2013年1月1日
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Ali, Rubaba
This paper applies an econometric analysis to estimate the average and distribution benefits of rural electrification using rich household survey data from India. ... 更多显示 The results support that rural electrification helps to reduce time allocated to fuelwood collection by household members and increases time allocated to studying by boys and girls. Rural electrification also increases the labor supply of men and women, schooling of boys and girls, and household per capita income and expenditure. Electrification also helps reduce poverty. But the larger share of benefits accrues to wealthier rural households, with poorer ones having more limited use of electricity. The analysis also shows that restricted supply of electricity, due to frequent power outages, negatively affects both household electricity connection and its consumption, thereby reducing the expected benefits of rural electrification. 更少显示
政策研究报告 WPS6095 2012年6月1日
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Ali, Rubaba; Barnes, Douglas F.
This paper examines the role of social safety-net programs in Bangladesh run by the government and nongovernmental organizations to mitigate seasonal deprivation in the country's highly vulnerable northwest region. ... 更多显示 Specifically, the paper explores whether social safety nets are limited to averting seasonal deprivation or can also address seasonality of income and employment more generally. Using a recent survey from the greater Rangpur (northwest) region, the paper finds that social safety nets have a positive effect on mitigating both seasonal and non-seasonal food deprivation. The results are robust, owing to the recent expanded coverage of social safety-net programs run by nongovernmental organizations active in the region. But given the annual recurrence of monga (seasonal food insecurity) in the northwest region owing to agricultural seasonality and an overwhelming dependence on agriculture for livelihoods, social safety nets are not a reliable tool for monga eradication. Programs are also needed to promote the income and productivity of the poor through diversification of income and employment. 更少显示
政策研究报告 WPS5865 2011年10月1日
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Khaleque, M. Abdul
A large section of the Nepalese population is deprived of electricity coverage despite huge hydropower potential, particularly in rural areas. About 63 percent of Nepalese households lack access to electricity and depend on oil-based or renewable energy alternatives. ... 更多显示 The disparity in access is stark, with almost 90 percent of the urban population connected, but less than 30 percent of the rural population. Nepal has about 83,000 MW of economically exploitable resources, but only 650 MW have been developed so far. This study has been designated to organize an evaluation system that measures the impact of micro-hydro installations on rural livelihoods and to establish a monitoring system for Alternative Energy Promotion Center (APEC) to continually measure the results of the results of the renewable energy programs against the targets. 更少显示
出版 63667 2011年7月29日
Samad, Hussain; Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Singh, Avjeet
Scaling-up adoption of renewable energy technology, such as solar home systems, to expand electricity access in developing countries can accelerate the transition to low-carbon economic development. ... 更多显示 Using a purposely collected national household survey, this study quantifies the carbon and distributional benefits of solar home system programs in Bangladesh. Three key findings are generated from the study. First, dissemination of solar home systems brings about significant carbon benefits: the total carbon emissions avoided from replacing kerosene use for lighting by solar home systems in non-electrified rural households was equivalent to about 4 percent of total annual carbon emissions in Bangladesh in 2007. This figure increases to about 15 percent if the grid-electricity generation is used as the energy baseline to estimate the carbon avoided from the installation of solar home systems. Second, solar home system subsidies in rural Bangladesh are progressive when the program is geographically targeted. Third, there exists a market potential for solar home systems in many rural areas if micro-credit schemes are made available and the propensity to install solar home systems is very responsive to income, with a 1-percent increase in per capita income increasing the probability of installing solar home systems by 12 percent, controlling for other factors. 更少显示
政策研究报告 WPS5545 2011年1月1日
Samad, Hussain; Wang, Limin; Cosgrove-Davies, Mac; Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit
Scaling-up adoption of renewable energy technology-such as solar home systems (SHS)-to expand electricity access in developing countries can accelerate the transition to low-carbon economic development. ... 更多显示 Using a national household survey, this study quantifies the carbon and distributional benefits of SHS programs in Bangladesh. Three key findings are generated from the study. First, dissemination of SHS brings about significant carbon benefits: the total carbon emissions avoided from replacing kerosene use for lighting by SHS in non-electrified rural households is equivalent to about 4 percent of total annual carbon emissions in Bangladesh in 2007. This figure increases to about 15 percent if grid-based electricity generation is used as the energy baseline to estimate the carbon avoided from SHS installation. Second, SHS subsidies in rural Bangladesh are progressive when the program is geographically targeted. Third, SHS has market potential in many rural areas if micro-credit schemes are made available. The propensity to install SHS is very responsive to income, with a 1 percent increase in per capita income increasing the probability of installing SHS by 12 percent, controlling other factors. 更少显示
电子刊物 59204 2011年1月1日
Samad, Hussain; Wang, Limin; Cosgrove-Davies, Mac; Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit
Energy poverty is a frequently used term among energy specialists, but unfortunately the concept is rather loosely defined. Several existing approaches measure energy poverty by defining an energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. ... 更多显示 This paper proposes an alternative measure that is based on energy demand. The energy poverty line is defined as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. This approach was applied to cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2005 household survey representative of both urban and rural India. The findings suggest that in rural areas some 57 percent of households are energy poor, versus 22 percent that are income poor. For urban areas the energy poverty rate is 28 percent compared with 20 percent that are income poor. Policies to reduce energy poverty would include support for rural electrification, the promotion of more modern cooking fuels, and encouraging greater adoption of improved biomass stoves. A combination of these programs would play a significant role in reducing energy poverty in rural India. 更少显示
政策研究报告 WPS5463 2010年11月1日
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Barnes, Douglas F.
In northwest Bangladesh, some 36 percent of poor households migrate every year during the lean (monga) period to cope with seasonal deprivation. ... 更多显示 Analysis of household survey data shows that the probability of seasonal migration is high for households with a high dependency ratio, high dependency on wage employment, and in villages with high unemployment; but low in villages with microcredit access. Findings show that seasonal migration helps households to smooth consumption and those non-migrant households who suffer during monga will likely benefit from deciding to migrate. But the cost of migration and lack of networking are potential barriers. The paper is structured as follows: section one gives introduction. The second section discusses the data and its major characteristics, such as the incidence of seasonal migration as a coping strategy and its relation to seasonal hardships (measured by starvation and meal rationing). The third section presents an analytical framework of how seasonal migration can help smooth consumption during the lean season. The fourth section analyses the determinants of seasonal migration, while the fifth section assesses the potential effect of seasonal migration on rural households' consumption-smoothing behavior. Finally, section six summarizes the study' findings and their policy implications. 更少显示
日志文章 79367 2010年8月1日
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Khalily, M. A. Baqui; Samad, Hussain A.
Microfinance is often criticized for not adequately addressing seasonality and hard-core poverty. In Bangladesh, a program known as PRIME was introduced in 2006 to address both concerns. ... 更多显示 Unlike regular microfinance, PRIME introduces a microfinance scheme that offers a flexible repayment schedule and consumption smoothing, as well as production, loans. It targets the ultra-poor, many of whom are also seasonally poor, with a severe inability to smooth consumption during certain months of the year. Besides providing loans, PRIME offers extension and training services. This paper uses a quasi-experimental survey design to evaluate PRIME against regular microfinance programs. The results show that PRIME is more effective than regular microfinance in reaching the ultra-poor, as well as the seasonal poor. PRIME also helps reduce seasonal deprivation and extreme poverty. Although the program has demonstrated its promise, it is too early to conclude whether the accrued benefits are large enough to contain both seasonal and chronic poverty on a sustained basis. 更少显示
政策研究报告 WPS5331 2010年6月1日
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Khalily, M. A. Baqui
Access to energy, especially modern sources, is a key to any development initiative. Based on cross-section data from a 2004 survey of some 2,300 households in rural Bangladesh, this paper studies the welfare impacts of household energy use, including that of modern energy, and estimates the household minimum energy requirement that could be used as a basis for an energy poverty line. ... 更多显示 The paper finds that although the use of both traditional (biomass energy burned in conventional stoves) and modern (electricity and kerosene) sources improves household consumption and income, the return on modern sources is 20 to 25 times higher than that on traditional sources. In addition, after comparing alternate measures of the energy poverty line, the paper finds that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, compared with 45 percent that are income poor. The findings suggest that growth in electrification and adoption of efficient cooking stoves for biomass use can lower energy poverty in a climate-friendly way by reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Reducing energy poverty helps reduce income poverty as well. 更少显示
政策研究报告 WPS5332 2010年6月1日
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Samad, Hussain A.
This book reviews quantitative methods and models of impact evaluation. The formal literature on impact evaluation methods and practices is large, with a few useful overviews. ... 更多显示 Yet there is a need to put the theory into practice in a hands-on fashion for practitioners. This book also details challenges and goals in other realms of evaluation, including monitoring and evaluation (M&E), operational evaluation, and mixed-methods approaches combining quantitative and qualitative analyses. This book is organized as follows. Chapter two reviews the basic issues pertaining to an evaluation of an intervention to reach certain targets and goals. It distinguishes impact evaluation from related concepts such as M&E, operational evaluation, qualitative versus quantitative evaluation, and ex-ante versus ex post impact evaluation. Chapter three focuses on the experimental design of an impact evaluation, discussing its strengths and shortcomings. Various non-experimental methods exist as well, each of which are discussed in turn through chapters four to seven. Chapter four examines matching methods, including the propensity score matching technique. Chapter five deal with double-difference methods in the context of panel data, which relax some of the assumptions on the potential sources of selection bias. Chapter six reviews the instrumental variable method, which further relaxes assumptions on self-selection. Chapter seven examines regression discontinuity and pipeline methods, which exploit the design of the program itself as potential sources of identification of program impacts. Specifically, chapter eight presents a discussion of how distributional impacts of programs can be measured, including new techniques related to quantile regression. Chapter nine discusses structural approaches to program evaluation, including economic models that can lay the groundwork for estimating direct and indirect effects of a program. Finally, chapter ten discusses the strengths and weaknesses of experimental and non-experimental methods and also highlights the usefulness of impact evaluation tools in policy making. 更少显示
出版 52099 2009年10月13日
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Koolwal, Gayatri B.
Access to electricity is crucial for economic development and there is a growing body of literature on the impact of rural electrification on development. ... 更多显示 However, most studies have so far relied on cross-sectional surveys comparing households with and without electricity, which have well known causal attribution problems. This paper is one of the first studies to examine the welfare impacts of households rural electrification based on panel surveys conducted in 2002 and 2005 for some 1,100 households in rural Vietnam,. The findings indicate that grid electrification has been both extensive (connecting all surveyed communes by 2005) and intensive (connecting almost 80 percent of the surveyed households by 2005). Vietnam is unusual in that once electricity is locally available, both rich and poor households are equally likely to get the connection. The econometric estimations suggest that grid electrification has significant positive impacts on households cash income, expenditure, and educational outcomes. The benefits, however, reach a saturation point after prolonged exposure to electricity. Finally, this study recommends investigating the long-term benefits of rural electrification - not just for households, but for the rural economy as a whole. 更少显示
政策研究报告 WPS5057 2009年9月1日
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain; Minh, Nguyen Huu; Barnes, Douglas F.
Lack of access to electricity is one of the major impediments to growth and development of the rural economies in developing countries. That is why access to modern energy, in particular to electricity, has been one of the priority themes of the World Bank and other development organizations. ... 更多显示 Using a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 of some 20,000 households in rural Bangladesh, this paper studies the welfare impacts of households' grid connectivity. Based on rigorous econometric estimation techniques, this study finds that grid electrification has significant positive impacts on households' income, expenditure, and educational outcomes. For example, the gain in total income due to electrification can be as much as 30 percent and as low as 9 percent. Benefits go up steadily as household exposure to grid electrification (measured by duration) increases and eventually reach a plateau. This paper also finds that rich households benefit more from electrification than poor households. Finally, estimates also show that income benefits of electrification on an average exceed cost by a wide margin. 更少显示
政策研究报告 WPS4859 2009年3月1日
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Barnes, Douglas F.
|Dynamic effects of microcredit in Bangladesh (英文) 更多显示||2014年3月1日||WPS6821||政策研究报告|
|The benefits of solar home systems :an analysis from Bangladesh (英文) 更多显示||2013年12月1日||WPS6724||政策研究报告|
|Addressing household air pollution : a case study in rural Madagascar (英文) 更多显示||2013年9月1日||WPS6627||政策研究报告|
|Welfare impacts of rural electrification : evidence from Vietnam (英文) 更多显示||2013年8月14日||81520||简介|
|Are microcredit borrowers in Bangladesh over-indebted ? (英文) 更多显示||2013年8月1日||WPS6574||政策研究报告|
|Are microcredit participants in Bangladesh trapped in poverty and debt ? (英文) 更多显示||2013年4月1日||WPS6404||政策研究报告|
|Does access to finance matter in microenterprise growth ? evidence from Bangladesh (英文) 更多显示||2013年1月1日||WPS6333||政策研究报告|
|Who benefits most from rural electrification ? evidence in India (英文) 更多显示||2012年6月1日||WPS6095||政策研究报告|
|Can social safety nets alleviate seasonal deprivation ? evidence from northwest Bangladesh (英文) 更多显示||2011年10月1日||WPS5865||政策研究报告|
|Power and people : the benefits of renewable energy in Nepal (英文) 更多显示||2011年7月29日||63667||出版|
|Quantifying Carbon and distributional benefits of solar home system programs in Bangladesh (英文) 更多显示||2011年1月1日||WPS5545||政策研究报告|
|Quantifying carbon and distributional benefits of renewable energy programs : the Bangladesh case study on solar home systems (英文) 更多显示||2011年1月1日||59204||电子刊物|
|Energy poverty in rural and urban India : are the energy poor also income poor ? : Energy poverty in rural and urban India : are the energy poor also income poor ? (英文) 更多显示||2010年11月1日||WPS5463||政策研究报告|
|Seasonal migration to mitigate income seasonality : evidence from Bangladesh (英文) 更多显示||2010年8月1日||79367||日志文章|
|Seasonal and extreme poverty in Bangladesh : evaluating an ultra-poor microfinance project (英文) 更多显示||2010年6月1日||WPS5331||政策研究报告|
|Energy access, efficiency, and poverty : how many households are energy poor in Bangladesh ? (英文) 更多显示||2010年6月1日||WPS5332||政策研究报告|
|Handbook on impact evaluation : quantitative methods and practices (英文) 更多显示||2009年10月13日||52099||出版|
|Welfare impacts of rural electrification : evidence from Vietnam (英文) 更多显示||2009年9月1日||WPS5057||政策研究报告|
|Welfare impacts of rural electrification : a case study from Bangladesh (英文) 更多显示||2009年3月1日||WPS4859||政策研究报告|