The World Bank and Indigenous Peoples (英语)
While the Bank has been criticized by non-governmental organizations for the adverse impacts upon indigenous, or tribal populations resulting from some of the projects that it finances, there is little doubt, as one source put it, that the Bank "has become... 更多显示
While the Bank has been criticized by non-governmental organizations for the adverse impacts upon indigenous, or tribal populations resulting from some of the projects that it finances, there is little doubt, as one source put it, that the Bank "has become the first international development agency to recognize that economic development places in jeopardy the survival of tribal people." The same source wrote that the Bank's proposed policy, "if fully implemented, will support their rights to their lands, resources, ethnic identities, and cultural autonomy." The following paper describes the policies, and experience of the Bank in relationship to indigenous peoples. It opens with a discussion of the Bank's 1982 policy statement, and then describes the findings of a five-year implementation review of Bank-financed projects with tribal programs. Lastly, it discusses the Bank's new policy toward indigenous peoples, and places this policy within the larger framework of the Bank's increasing concern for social, and economic rights. One of the themes explains there has been a fundamental change in the Bank's thinking about indigenous peoples, from an early concern with protecting small, isolated tribal societies from the negative impacts of development, to the promotion of conditions among its Borrowers, for the active participation of indigenous peoples in the development process itself. This new approach is reflected in the Bank's current policy directive, as well as several recent projects being prepared and financed by the Bank. It is also reflected in the Bank's growing emphasis upon participatory forms of development, and the increasing incorporation of social, and cultural analysis into its investment program, and other development work. Highlighted is the Bank's broad objective towards indigenous peoples, as for all the people in its member countries, i.e., to ensure that the development process fosters full respect for the dignity, human rights, and cultural uniqueness of all peoples. More specifically, the objective at the center of this directive is to ensure that indigenous peoples do not suffer adverse effects during the development process, particularly from Bank financed projects, and that they receive culturally compatible social, and economic benefits. This paper has argued that there has been a fundamental shift in the way in which the Bank is conceptualizing, and approaching the concerns of indigenous peoples in its policy and project work. Rather than focusing solely on attempting to mitigate the adverse impacts of its projects on relatively small, and isolated tribal groups, it has broadened the definition of the subject population, to include a much more diverse assemblage of peoples, and to seek ways in which these peoples might both participate in, and benefit from the development process itself.