Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi and Uganda: universal primary education and poverty reduction (英语)
In Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, and Uganda, free primary education (FPE) was viewed as a step toward achieving universal basic education and as part of scaling up poverty reduction. The removal of school fees contributed to poverty reduction by ensuring universal... 更多显示
In Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, and Uganda, free primary education (FPE) was viewed as a step toward achieving universal basic education and as part of scaling up poverty reduction. The removal of school fees contributed to poverty reduction by ensuring universal access to basic education, which in turn could help break the cycle of poverty. It is a significant intervention in Sub-Saharan Africa, which is lagging behind in achieving universal primary education (UPE). The four countries represent different stages of the process over time, using different scales, and different approaches under different political, social, and economical contexts. Universal basic education is largely understood as universal primary schooling. Only after the Jomtien conference on Education for All (EFA) in 1990 was it understood that by making primary education free would it include children from poor families and thereby perhaps become universal. Schooling costs for families are a major constraint to achieving UPE. Direct costs can include general fees, examination fees, salary top-ups, textbooks, materials, uniform, feeding, transportation, sports and culture. Indirect costs are the opportunity cost of labor at home or work. By eliminating direct costs of schooling, families could send their children to primary school, thus increasing demand. On the supply side, very few school systems in Africa were keyed to education for all from the outset, and a strategy combining the elimination of fees together with the reform of the EFA system is needed.